Security is one of the most important issues in communications. Security issues arising in communication networks include confidentiality, integrity, authentication and non-repudiation. Attacks on the security of communication networks can be divided into two basic types: passive attacks and active attacks.
An active attack corresponds to the situation in which a malicious actor intentionally disrupts the system. A passive attack corresponds to the situation in which a malicious actor attempts to interpret source information without injecting any information or trying to modify the information; i.e., passive attackers listen to the transmission without modifying it. Information Theoretic Security focuses on confidentiality issues, in which passive attacks are of primary concern. The information theoretic approach to achieving secure communication opens a promising new direction toward solving wireless networking security problems. Compared to contemporary cryptosystems, information theoretic approaches offer advantages such as eliminating the key management issue; are less vulnerable to the man-in-the-middle and achieve provable security that is robust to powerful eavesdroppers possessing unlimited computational resources, knowledge of the communication strategy employed including coding and decoding algorithms, and access to communication systems either through perfect or noisy channels.
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